“HAUDENOSAUNEE” the Iroquois Indian Constitution and American History

The Ohio Treaty and The Iroquois Indians became a part of
Ohio’s History
By Delana Forsyth and my mother Delana Baldwin
The name “Iroquois” is French variant on a term for “snake” given by the Hurons. There were other tribes who spoke the same language, but who were not part of the confederacy. The Erie natives had been related to the Iroquois. They lived east shore Lake Erie in New York and Pennsylvania. The Iroquois Confederacy considered them enemies and wiped them all out.
By 1650, the Iroquois began to push their way into the rich Ohio Country between the Great Lakes and the Ohio River. They conquered and drove out various natives living in the area. The resulting in wars known as the Beaver Wars (1650-1700 A.D.) because the Iroquois wanted more land for hunting and trapping beavers and deer. The participated in the fur trade with the Dutch and the English. Unlike many other tribes east of the Mississippi, most of the Iroquois Nation didn’t favor the French over the English. A small group of Mohawks and Onondagas converted to Catholicism and aided the French. A small number of Iroquois lived in modern-day Ohio, only several hundred at a time, only for hunting. There had been some who stayed and developed their own political system and separated themselves entirely from the ways of life of the east. With said, I have discovered the Mohawk Tribe of Ohio.
I have been blessed to be born of American Indian blood, my blood is of the nation Iroquois. If you look up the history of the Iroquois the American constitution has been taken from many of our ways and beliefs. With that said, I have been studying my family history all my life. There is so much history in my family to be able to write things I am. it has been an adventure for me a long the way along with many tears. To talk to my mother and find out that there had been slavery in my family as well eats at me. In school, we are taught about black slavery, NO ONE EVER TALKS ABOUT THE ABUSE AND SLAVERY MY PEOPLE THE AMERICAN INDIAN HAVE SUFFERED.
The women are more so important in the tribes.Men are men no matter what color you are. My grandmother had been sold to my grandfather. Whom happened to be 20 years older and only two children lived out of seven my mother and one aunt.
Iroquois Women
The Heart of the Nation
“There is nothing more real than the
Superiority of the women. It is they who constitute
The tribe, transmit the nobility blood,… and perpetuate
The family. The possess all actual authority; own the land, and
The fields and their harvest; they are the soul of the councils,
The arbiters of peace and war; they have care of the public treasury;
[captives] are given them; they arrange marriages; the children belong to them and their blood confined the line of descent and the order of inheritance.”
By: Joseph-Francois Lafitau

Many fragments of tribes of Algonkin lineage – Delawares , Nanticokes , Mohegans , Mississagas – sought the same hos pitable protection , which never failed them . Their descend ants still reside on the Canadian Reservation , which may well be styled an aboriginal – refuge of nations , ” affording a strik ing evidence in our own day of the persistent force of a great idea , when embodied in practical shape by the energy of a master mind . The name by which their constitution or organic law is known among them is kayánerenh , to which the epitaph kowa , ” great , ” is frequently added . This word , kayánerenh , is sometimes rendered « law , ” or “ league , ” but its proper meaning seems to be “ peace . ‘ It is used in this sense by the missionaries , in their translations of the scriptures and the prayer – book . In such expressions as the “ Prince of Peace , ” “ the author of peace , ” ” give peace in our time , ” we find kayá nerenh employed with this meaning . Its root is yaner , signifying “ noble , ” or “ excellent , ” which yields , among many derivatives , kayánere , “ goodness , ” and ka yánerenh , “ peace , ” or “ peacefulness . ” The national hymn of the confederacy , sung whenever their “ Condoling Coun cil ” meets , commences with a verse referring to their league , which is literally rendered , “ We come to greet and thank the PEACE ” ( kayánerenh ) . When the list of their ancient chiefs , the fifty original councillors , is chanted in the closing litany of the meeting , there is heard from time to time , as the leaders of each clan are named , an outburst of praise , in the words “ This was the roll of you— You that combined in the work , You that completed the work , The Great PEACE . ” ( Kayánerenh – kowa . ) The regard of Englishmen for their Magna Charta and Bill of Rights , and that of Americans for their national Constitu tion , seem weak in comparison with the intense gratitude and

reverence of the Five Nations for the “ Great Peace , Hiawatha and his colleagues established for them . Of the subsequent life of Hiawatha , and of his death , we have no sure information . The records of the Iroquois are historical , and not biographical . As Hiawatha had been made a chief among the Caniengas , he doubtless continued to reside with that nation . A tradition , which is in itself highly probable , represents him as devoting himself to the congenial work of clearing away the obstructions in the streams which intersect the country then inhabited by the confederated nations , and which formed the chief means of communication between them . That he thus , in some measure , anticipated the plans of De Witt Clinton and his associates , on a smaller scale , but perhaps with a larger statesmanship , we may be willing enough to believe . A wild legend recorded by some writers , but not told of him by the Canadian Iroquois , and apparently belonging to their ancient mythology , gives him an apotheosis , and makes him ascend to heaven in a white canoe . It may be proper to dwell for a moment on the singular complication of mistakes which has converted this Indian reformer and statesman into a mythological personage . When by the events of the Revolutionary war the original confederacy was broken up , the larger portion of the people followed Brant to Canada . The refugees comprised nearly the whole of the Caniengas , and the greater part of the Onondagas and Cayugas , with many members of the other nations . In Canada their first proceeding was to reëstablish , as far as possible , their ancient league , with all its laws and ceremonies . The Onondagas had brought with them most of their wampum records , and the Caniengas jealously preserved the memories of the federation , in whose formation they had borne a leading part . The history of the league continued to be the topic of their orators whenever a new chief was in stalled into office . Thus the remembrance of the facts has been preserved among them with much clearness and preci

which sion , and with little admixture of mythological elements . With the fragments of the tribes which remained on the southern side of the Great Lakes the case was very different . A feeble pretence was made , for a time , of keeping up the semblance of the old confederacy ; but except among the Senecas , who , of all the Five Nations , had had least to do with the formation of the league , the ancient families which had furnished the members of their senate , and were the con- 1 servators of their history , had mostly Aed to Canada or the West . The result was that among the interminable stories i with which the common people beguile their winter nights , the traditions of Atotarho and Hiawatha became intermingled with the legends of their mythology . An accidental similarity , in the Onondaga dialect , between the name of Hiawatha and that of one of their ancient divinities , led to a confusion between the two , which has misled some investigators . This deity bears , in the sonorous Canienga tongue , the name of Taronhiawagon , meaning ” the Holder of the Heavens . ” The Jesuit missionaries style him “ the great god of the Iroquois . ” Among the Onondagas of the present day , the name is abridged to Taonhiawagi , or Tahiawagi . The confusion between this name and that of Hiawatha ( which , in another form , is pronounced Tahionwatha ) seems to have begun more than a century ago ; for Pyrlæus , the Moravian missionary , heard among the Iroquois ( according to Heckewelder ) that the person who first proposed the league was an ancient Mohawk , named Thannawege . Mr. J. V. H. Clarke , in his interesting History of Onondaga , makes the name to have been originally Ta – oun – ya – wat – ha , and describes the bearer as “ the deity who presides over fisheries and hunting – grounds . He came down from heaven in a white canoe , and after sundry adventures , which remind one of the labors of Hercules , assumed the name of Hiawatha ( signifying , we are told , “ a very wise man ” ) , and dwelt for a time an ordinary mortal among men , occupied in works of benevolence . Finally, after founding the confederacy and bestowing many prudent counsels upon the people , he returned to the skies by the same conveyance in which he had descended . This legend , or , rather , congeries of intermingled legends , was communi cated by Clark to Schoolcraft , when the latter was compiling his “ Notes on the Iroquois . ” Mr. Schoolcraft , pleased with the poetical cast of the story , and the euphonious name , made confusion worse confounded by transferring the hero to a distant region and identifying him with Manabozho , a fan tastic divinity of the Ojibways . Schoolcraft’s volume , which he chose to entitle “ The Hiawatha Legends , ” has not in it a single fact or fiction relating either to Hiawatha himself or to the Iroquois deity Taronhiawagon . Wild Ojibway stories concerning Manabozho and his comrades form the staple of its contents . But it is to this collection that we owe the charming poem of Longfellow ; and thus , by an extraordinary fortune , a grave Iroquois lawgiver of the fifteenth century has become , in modern literature , an Ojibway demigod , son of the West Wind , and companion of the tricksy Paupukkeewis , the boastful Iagoo , and the strong Kwasind . If a Chinese traveler , during the middle ages , inquiring into the history and religion of the western nations , had confounded King Alfred with King Arthur , and both with Odin , he would not have made a more preposterous confusion of names and characters than that which has hitherto disguised the genuine personality of the great Onondaga reformer . 1 About the main events of his history , and about his char acter and purposes , there can be no reasonable doubt . We have the wampum belts which he handled , and whose simple hieroglyphics preserve the memory of the public acts in which he took part . We have , also , in the Iroquois “ Book of Rites , ” which in the present volume is given in its original form , a still more clear and convincing testimony to the character both of the legislator and of the people for whom

his institutions were designed . This book , sometimes called the “ Book of the Condoling Council , ” might properly enough be styled an Iroquois Veda . It comprises the speeches , songs , and other ceremonies , which , from the earliest period of the confederacy , have composed the proceedings of their council when a deceased chief is lamented and his successor is installed in office . The fundamental laws of the league , a list of their ancient towns , and the names of the chiefs who constituted their first council , chanted in a kind of litany , are also comprised in the collection . The contents , after being preserved in memory , like the Vedas , for many genera tions , were written down by desire of the chiefs , when their language was first reduced to writing ; and the book is there fore more than a century old . Its language , archaic when written , is now partly obsolete , and is fully understood by only a few of the oldest chiefs . It is a genuine Indian com position , and must be accepted as disclosing the true char acter of its authors . The result is remarkable enough . In stead of a race of rude and ferocious warriors , we find in this book a kindly and affectionate people , full of sympathy for their friends in distress , considerate to their women , tender to their children , anxious for peace , and imbued with a pro found reverence for their constitution and its authors . We become conscious of the fact that the aspect in which these Indians have presented themselves to the outside world has been in a large measure deceptive and factitious . The fero city , craft and cruelty , which have been deemed their leading traits , have been merely the natural accompaniments of wars of self – preservation , and no more indicated their genuine character than the war – paint , plume and tomahawk of the warrior displayed the customary guise in which he appeared among his own people . The cruelties of war , when war is a struggle for national existence , are common to all races . The persistent desire for peace , pursued for centuries in federal unions , and in alliances and treaties with other nations , has been manifested by few as steadily as by the countrymen of Hiawatha . The sentiment of universal brotherhood which directed their polity has never been so fully developed in any branch of the Aryan race , unless it may be found incorporated in the religious quietism of Buddha and his followers.

the disruption of their League would not have taken place . Yet there can be no doubt that he was sincerely attached to them , and desired their good . Unfortunately for them , they held , as was natural , only the second place in his affections . He was , by adoption , an Iroquois chief , but his first allegiance was due to his native country , to whose interests , both in the war with France and in the separation which he foresaw between England and her colonies , he did not hesitate to sacrifice the welfare of his red brethren . Against his subtle arts and overmastering energy the wisest of their statesmen , worthy successors of the great founders of their constitution , strove in vain , on each occasion , to maintain that neutrality which was evidently the true policy of their people . 1 Sakayengwaraton is not an elected chief , nor does he bear one of the hereditary titles of the Great Council , in which he holds so distinguished a station . Indeed , his office is one unknown to the ancient constitution of the Kanonsionni . It is the creation of the British Government , to which he owes , with the willing consent of his own people , his rank and position in the Council . The Provincial administrators saw the need of a native official who should be , like the Speaker of the English House of Commons , the mouthpiece of the Council , and the intermediary between it and the representa tive of the Crown . The grandson of Sir William Johnson was known as a brave warrior , a capable leader , and an eloquent speaker . In the war of 1812 , at the early age of twenty , he had succeeded an elder brother in the command of the Indian contingent , and had led his dusky followers with so much skill and intrepidity as to elicit high praise from the English commander . His eloquence was noted , even among a race of orators . I can well believe what I have heard of its effects , as even in his old age , when an occasion has for a moment aroused his spirit , I have not known whether most to 1 For the confirmation of these statements see the excellent biogr ies

admire the nobleness and force of his sentiments and reason ing , or the grace and howing ease with which he delivered the stately periods of his sonorous language . He has been a worthy successor of the distinguished statesmen , Garagontieh , Garangula , Decanasora , Canasatego , Logan , and others , who in former years guided the destinies of his people . He is considered to have a better knowledge of the traditions and ancient usages of the Six Nations than any other member of the tribes , and is the only man now living who can tell the meaning of every word of the “ Book of Rites . ” The other chief to whom I have referred is the Onondaga Councillor who is known to the whites as John Buck , but who bears in council the name of Skanawati ( “ Beyond the River ‘ ‘ ) , one of the fifty titular names which have descended from the time of Hiawatha . He is the official keeper of the “ wampum records ” of the confederacy , an important trust , which , to his knowledge , has been in his family for at least four generations . His rank , his character , and his eloquence make him now , virtually , the Iroquois premier – an office which , among the Six Nations , as among the Athenians of old and the English of modern days , is both unknown to the consti tution and essential to its working . His knowledge of the legends and customs of his people is only inferior to that of the more aged Speaker of the Council . The account which Chief J. S. Johnson gave me of the book may be briefly told . The English missionaries reduced the Canienga language to writing in the early part of the last century . The Jesuit fathers , indeed , had learned and written the language – which they styled the Iroquois – fifty years before ; but it does not appear that they had instructed any of the Indians in the art of writing it , as their successors in the Eastern Province have since done . The English mission aries took pains to do this . The liturgy of their church was printed in the Mohawk tongue , at New York , as early as the

year 1714. ‘ By the middle of the century there were many members of the tribe who could write in the well – devised orthography of the missionaries — an orthography which anticipated in most points the well known “ Pickering alphabet , ” now generally employed in writing the Indian languages of North America . The chiefs of the Great Council , at once conservative and quick to learn , saw the advantages which would accrue from preserving , by this novel method , the forms of their most important public duty — that of creat ing new chiefs — and the traditions connected with their own body . They caused the ceremonies , speeches and songs , which together made up the proceedings of the Council when it met for the two purposes , always combined , of condolence and induction , to be written down in the words in which they had been preserved in memory for many generations . A Canienga chief , named David , a friend of Brant , is said to have accom plished the work . In Stone’s Life of Sir William Johnson , mention is made of a Mohawk chief , “ David of Schoharie , ” who , in May , 1757 , led a troop of Indians from his town to join the forces under Sir William , in his expedition to Crown Point , to repel the French invaders . Brant appears to have been in this expedition . It is luighly probable that in Chief David of Schoharie we have the compiler , or rather the scribe , of this “ Iroquois Veda . ” The copy of this book which Chief J. S. Johnson possessed was made by himself , under the following circumstances : During the prevalence of the Asiatic cholera , in 1832 , the tribes on the Reserve suffered severely . Chief Johnson , then a young man and not yet a leader in the Great Council , was active in attending on the sick . He was called to visit an 1 This date is given in the preface to the Mohawk Prayer – book of 1787 . This first version of the liturgy was printed under the direction of the Rev. Wm . Andrews , the missionary of the “ New England Society . ”

For a proper appreciation of this peculiar composition , some further particulars respecting its origin and character will be needed . During my earlier visits to the Reserve of the Six Nations , near Brantford , I had heard of an Indian book which was used at their “ Condoling Councils , ” the most important of their many public gatherings . But it was not until the month of September , 1879 , that I had an oppor tunity of seeing the work . At that time two copies of the book were brought to me by the official holders , two of the principal chiefs of the confederacy . One of these was Chief John “ Smoke ” Johnson , who for many years had held the high office of Speaker of the Great Council , though , of late, yielding to age and infirmity , he has withdrawn from the public performance of its duties . His second name is a rude rendering of his truly poetical Indian appellation , Sakayen gwaraton , or “ Disappearing Mist . ” It signifies properly , I was told , the haze which rises from the ground in an autumn morn ing and vanishes as the day advances . His English name , and , in part , his blood , Chief Johnson derives from no less distin guished an ancestor than Sir William Johnson , who played so notable a part in colonial history during the last century , and who exercised , perhaps , a greater influence on the destiny of the Iroquois than any other individual since the formation of their confederacy . To him , indeed , may be ascribed the distinction , such as it is , of destroying the work which Hia watha and Dekanawidah had founded . But for the influence over the Indians which he had acquired , and was able to bequeath to others , it is probable that the Six Nations would have remained neutral during the Revolutionary War , and

Then one day I came across Ohio. I had been surprised by what I had read. Here is what I had found on the internet about Fort Greenville.
The treaty of Fort Greenville was signed on August 3, 1795. At fort Greenville what is now Greenville, Ohio; it followed negotiations, (which means lie in white language) after the American Indian loss at the Battle of Fallen Timbers a year earlier. It ended the Northwest Indian war in the Ohio country and limited strategic parcels of land to the north and east. (which again was robbed from us by white lies). The parties to the treaty were a coalition of American Indian Tribes, known as the Western Confederacy, and the United States government represented by General Anthony Wayne for local frontiersmen.
Whom, Toledo’s Anthony Wayne Trail is named.
The treaty is considered “the beginning of modern Ohio history.”
The treaty established what became known as the Greenville Treaty Line, which was for several years a boundary between the Indian Territory and land stolen by the White Europeans. The latter American thieves frequently disregarded the treaty, (we got punished for white people wrongs). The treaty line to encroach on American Indian land. The treaty also established the “annuity system: this is where the yearly grants of federal money and supplies of calico cloth came in to the Indians, and institutionalized continuing government influence in the tribe’s affairs giving outside considerable control over the Indian life in Ohio. the treaty of Greenville, also called a treaty of Fort Greenville, on the same date settlement between whites and the Indians. Indian confederation headed by Miami Chief Little Turtle by which the Indians ceded most of the future state of Ohio and significant portion of what would be the states of Michigan, Indiana, and Illinois.
As whites moved into the Northwest territory in the years following the American revolution their advance was opposed by lose of alliance was mainly Algonquian speaking people. This subject will need to come in another article. The Shawnee and the Delaware to the whites. Their Indian name is Lenni Lenape or Lenape. These tribes pushed from New York, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey, to Ohio. both whom have been driven west by prior territorial encroachments, joined the Ottawa, Ojibwa, Miami, and Potawatomi in the Northwest Indian confederation, led by Little Turtle, the American Indian confederation skirmishes with settlers and Kentucky militia in the late 1780’s.
In the effort to pacify the region and stake a concussive claim to areas that had been ceded by the British under the terms of the peace of Paris (1783), a series of expeditions were dispatched in the Northwest Territory. The first under General Josiah Harmer, was routed in a pair of engagements in October 1790. The second, led by Northwest Territory governor Arthur St Clair, was crushed on November 4, 1791 in one of the worst defeats ever suffered by the United States military against an American Indian force. Not much is ever talked about the victories of the American Indians. Because whites are always ashamed for defeat when it comes to their ass being handed to them. SMILING.
Emboldened by victories and promise of support from the British, who still occupied strategic forts within the Northwest territory, the confederacy appeared to have checked the American advance. In, 1792 President George Washington appointed General “Mad” Anthony Wayne as commander of the United States Army and tasked him with crushing the resistance. Unlike the previous expeditions which relied heavily on militia troops. Wayne’s force consisted of professional, seasoned infantry. On August 20, 1794, Wayne’s 2000 regulars supplemented, by 1000 mounted Kentucky militia, met 2000 of the confederations warriors near Fort Miami (southwest of modern day Toledo).
In the ensuing Battle of Fallen Timbers. Wayne’s troops had broken the Indian line and the warriors fled. The defeat was compounded by the evaporation of support from the British, which had since become entangled in the French Revolutionary wars and did not wish to risk a confrontation with the United States. Within months of Fallen Timbers, Britain made clear its intentions with the Jay treaty November 19, 1794, wherein it promised to evacuate its forts in the Northwest territory. Beaten in battle and with np prospect of outside assistance, the confederation agreed to terms set forth by the Americans.
On August 3, 1794, Wayne, Little turtle, and their delegations met at Fort Greenville. To conclude the treaty. Both sides agree to a termination of hostilities and exchange of orisons, a redefinition of border between the United States and Indian lands. By the term of the treaty, the confederation ceded all lands east and south of a boundary that began at the mouth of the Cuyahoga (in modern day Cleveland) and south to Fort Laurens (modern day Bolivian, Ohio) and then west to Fort Recovery. The boundary then continued south west to the point at which the Kentucky River emptied into the Ohio River. (modern day Carrollton, Kentucky). In addition, the United States was granted strategically significant parcels of land to the North and west of this line, including the sites of the modern cities of Fort Wayne and Lafayette Indiana; Chicago, Illinois; and Toledo Ohio. the treaty also ceded Mackinac Island and its environs, as well as a large track of land encompassing much of the area of modern metropolitan Detroit. After the signing of the treaty. Little advocated cooperation with the United States was not there to keep any order. They got what they wanted once the theft had already been done there was no going back. Tecumsech, who stated that the so-called peace chiefs had given away the land that they did not own. All Indian nations understood we did not own the land. We are made of dust and the Great Spirit gives us life. Not all the great Chief, wanted any treaty. They were ready to fight to keep what they had.
Tecumseh had led a brilliant campaign against the Americans during the War of 1812, his death of 1813 and the disintegration spelled the effective end of organized Indian resistance in the known at the time as the Western Confederacy.

Mohawk Institute Residential School
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The Mohawk Institute in 2013
The Mohawk Institute Residential School was a Canadian Indian residential school in Brantford, Ontario, Canada. The School operated under the Government of Canada from July 1, 1885 to June 27, 1970. Prior to 1885 the Anglican Church of Canada was involved in the operation of a school and residential school in the same location. Enrollment at the school ranged from 90 to 200 students per year.

Contents [hide]
2 It was operated by the Anglican Church of Canada from its founding as the “Mechanics’ Institute” (a day school for boys on the Six Nations of the Grand River reserve) in 1828 until 1969, when control was handed over to the Canadian federal government.[1] The Mohawk Institute was established on 350-acres of farmland, all of which were or had been part of the land of Six Nations at some point.[2]
In 1831, the school began to function as a residential school for boys, and starting in 1834, girls were taken in as boarders as well. Children from Six Nations were sent there, along with some from the New Credit, and Moraviantown, Sarnia, Walpole Island, Muncey, Scugog, Stoney Point, Saugeen, Bay of Quinte and Kahnawake reserves.
While the school was originally nearby the Mohawk village, in 1837 the colonial government of Upper Canada ordered Six Nation residents to resettle south of the Grand River, kilometers from the school.[1] Between 1854–1859, the building was destroyed by fire and rebuilt a few hundred meters from its original location. Around the same time, the school acquired more land, and farming became a prominent part of life for children at the school. In 1885, the year after the Indian Act made enrollment compulsory for Status Indian children under 16, the school began to accept students from reserves beyond Six Nations.
On April 19, 1903, the main school building was again destroyed by fire. On May the barns of the Mohawk School were also destroyed by fire. On June 24, 1903 the playhouse which had been serving as the boys’ dorm since the main fire in April was also burned down. All three of these fires have been attributed to students at the school. The school buildings were rebuilt the following year. The new school building contained separate boys and girls wings, principal’s and teachers quarters, as well as administrative offices.This new school building was designed to hold 150 students and also included the development of barns, stables, and other agriculture related out buildings.[2]
In 1922, the management of the school was formally taken over by the Canadian government, though the Anglican church retained ownership, and the agreement required that the principal be Anglican.[1] A chapel was added to the school in 1930.[2] By 1955, enrollment reached 185 children.
In 1963, farming was discontinued as the children were now given a full day of education without requiring their manual labour. Enrollment decreased as schools were built in reserve throughout Ontario, and in 1970, the school was closed.
Six Nations assumed ownership of the building the following year.
Abuse[edit source]
Mohawk Institute ca.1932
It was operated by the Anglican Church of Canada from its founding as the “Mechanics’ Institute” (a day school for boys on the Six Nations of the Grand River reserve) in 1828 until 1969, when control was handed over to the Canadian federal government. The Mohawk Institute was established on 350-acres of farm land, all of which were or had been part of the land of Six Nations at some point.
In 1831, the school began to function as a residential school for boys, and starting in 1834, girls were taken in as boarders as well.[1] Children from Six Nations were sent there, along with some from the New Credit, and Moraviantown, Sarnia, Walpole Island, Muncey, Scugog, Stoney Point, Saugeen, Bay of Quinte and Kahnawake reserves.
While the school was originally nearby the Mohawk village, in 1837 the colonial government of Upper Canada ordered Six Nation residents to resettle south of the Grand River, kilometers from the school.[1] Between 1854–1859, the building was destroyed by fire and rebuilt a few hundred meters from its original location. Around the same time, the school acquired more land, and farming became a prominent part of life for children at the school. In 1885, the year after the Indian Act made enrollment compulsory for Status Indian children under 16, the school began to accept students from reserves beyond Six Nations.
On April 19, 1903, the main school building was again destroyed by fire. On May the barns of the Mohawk School were also destroyed by fire. On June 24, 1903 the playhouse which had been serving as the boys’ dorm since the main fire in April was also burned down. All three of these fires have been attributed to students at the school.[4] The school buildings were rebuilt the following year. The new school building contained separate boys and girls wings, principal’s and teachers quarters, as well as administrative offices.[1] This new school building was designed to hold 150 students and also included the development of barns, stables, and other agriculture related outbuildings.
In 1922, the management of the school was formally taken over by the Canadian government, though the Anglican church retained ownership, and the agreement required that the principal be Anglican. A chapel was added to the school in 1930. By 1955, enrollment reached 185 children.
In 1963, farming was discontinued as the children were now given a full day of education without requiring their manual labour. Enrollment decreased as schools were built in reserve throughout Ontario, and in 1970, the school was closed. Six Nations assumed ownership of the building the following year.
Abuse[edit source]
the Abuse that was happening. Many former students have described suffering physical, sexual and emotional abuse at the school. The poor quality of food served to students led to the school’s nickname, The Mush Hole.
In 1914 two former students from the Mohawk School charged the school’s principal for cutting off their hair, imprisonment, and physical abuse. The case went to trial on March 31, 1914 where the students were awarded $400 for two of the claims and the Principal was fined.
Formal complaints were registered against the school and staff relating to physical abuse, the use of the strap, and quality of food by students and parents of students in 1937, 1951, 1955, and 1965.

Present Day[edit source]
Following the closure of the Mohawk Institute in 1970 the Woodland Cultural Centre opened on the site in 1972, as an organization focused on research, history, and later the arts. Woodland’s cultural and historical interpretation programming utilizes the historic Mohawk Institute building to teach about the history of residential schools in Canada.[9]
In 2013 a leak in the roof of the residential school building caused significant damage to the historic site. As a result of this leak a community input process was established within Six Nations of the Grand River to determine what the local community wanted to do with the building, 98% of participants voted to save the historic building. In March 2014 the “Save the Evidence” campaign was started to raise money to preserve the Mohawk Institute and to raise awareness about the history of residential schools.

Artistic Works[edit source]
The history and student experience at the Mohawk Institute has contributed to the works of a number of authors and artists including:
Graham, Elizabeth (1997). The Mush Hole: Life at Two Indian Residential Schools. Waterloo, Ontario: Heffle Publishing. ISBN 0-9683179-0-1.
Harper, Maddie (1993). “Mush-hole” Memories of a Residential School. Carlos Freire. Toronto, Ontario: The Turtle Island Publication Group. ISBN 0-920813-98-4.
“Mush Hole Remembered: R.G. Miller”, a series of paintings by artist R.G. Miller based on his experience as a student at the Mohawk Institute.
“Opening Doors to Dialogue” community art project led by Samuel Thomas and the Woodland Cultural Centre used the physical building of the Mohawk Institute as inspiration for a community dialogue, healing, and art.

Iroquois Women
The Heart of the Nation
“There is nothing real than the
Superiority of the women. it is they who constitute the tribe,
transmit the nobility,….. and perpetuate the family. The pessess all actual authority; own the land, and the fields and their harvest; they are the soul of the councils, the arbiters of peace and war; they have the care of the public treasury; [captives] are given them; they arrange marriages; the children belong to them and their blood confined the line of descent and the order of

Iroquois Language;

As the mental faculties of a people are reflected in their speech, we should naturally expect that the language of a race manifesting such unusual powers as the Iroquois nations have displayed would be of remarkable characters. In this expectation I am not disappointed. The languages of a people Huron-Iroquois family belong to what has been termed the polysynthetic class, and are distinguished, even in that class, by more than ordinary endowment of that variety of forms and fullness of expression for which languages of that type are noted. The best-qualified judges have been the most struck with this peculiar excellence. “The variety of compounds,” wrote the accomplished missionary, Brebeuf, concerning the Huron tongue, :is very great; it is the key to the secret of their language. They have as many genders as ourselves , as many numbers as the Greeks.” Recurring to the same comparison, the remarks of the Huron verb that it has as many tenses and numbers as the Greek, with certain discriminations which letter did not possess. A great living authority has added the weight of his name to these opinions of scholarly Jesuit. Professor Max Muller, who took the opportunity afforded by the presence of a Mohawk undergraduate at Oxford to study the language, writes of it in emphatic terms: “To my mind the structure of such language as the Mohawk is quite sufficient evidence that those who worked out such a work of art were powerful reasoners and accurate classifiers.”
It is a fact somewhat surprising, as well as unfortunate, that no complete grammar of a language of the Huron-Iroquois stock has ever been published. Many learned and zealous missionaries, Catholic and Protestant, have labored among tribes of this stock for more than two centuries. Portions of the Scriptures, as well as some other works, have been translated into several of these languages. Some small books, including biograghies and hymn-books, have been composed and printed in two of them; and the late devoted and indefatigable missionary among the Senecas, the Rev. Asher Wright, conducted for several years a periodical, the “Mental Elevator” (Ne Jaguhnigoageswatha), in their language. Several grammars are known to have been composed, nut none have yet been printed in a complete form. One reason of this unwillingness to publish was, undoubtedly, the sense which the compilers felt of the insufficiency of their work. Such is the extraordinary complexity of the language, such the multiplicity of its forms and the subtlety of its distinctions, that years of study are required to master it; and indeed it may be said that the abler the investigator and the more careful his study, the more likely he is to be dissatisfied with his success. This dissatisfaction was frankly expressed and practically exhibited by Mr. Wright himself,certainly one of the best endowed and most industrious of these inquirers. After residing for several years among the Senecas, forming discrimination of sounds, and even publishing several translations in their language, he undertook to give some account of its grammtical forms. A little work printed in 1842, with the modest title of “A spelling book of the Seneca Language,” comprises the variations of nouns, adjectives and pro-nouns given with much minuteness. Those of the verbs are promised, but the book closes abruptly without them, for the reason- as the author afterwards explained to a correspondent- that he had not as yet been able to obtain such a complete knowledge of them as he desired. This difficulty is further exemplified by work purporting to be a “Grammar of the Huron language, by a Missionary of the Village of the Mission, and translated from Latin, by Rev. John Wilkies.” This translation is published in the “Transactions of the Literary and Historical Society of Quebec,” for 1831, and fills more than a hundred octavo pages. it is a work evidently of great labor, and is devoted chiefly to the variations of the verbs; yet its lack of completeness may be judged from the single fact that the “transitions,” or in other words, the combinations of the double pronouns, nominative and objective, with the language, are hardly noticed; and, it may be explained. the work, indeed, would rather oerplex than aid an investigator, and gives no proper idea of the character and richness of the languages. The same may be said of the grammatical notices comprised in the Latin “Promenim” to Bruyas’ Iroquois dictionary. These notices are apparently modeled to some extent on tis anonymous grammar of the Huron language, – unless indeed, the latter may hve been copied from Bruyas; the rules which they give being in several instances couched in the same words.
Some useful grammatical explanations are found in the anonymous Onondaga dictionary of the seventeenth century,
by Dr. Shea in his “Library of American linguistics.”
But by far the most valuable contribution to our knowledge of the structrue of this remarkable group of language id found in the works of a distinguished writer of our own day, the Rev. J.A. Cuoq, of Montreal, eminent both as a missionary and as a philologist. After twenty years of labor among the Iroquois and Algonquin tribes in the Province of Quebec, M. Cuoq was led to appear as an author by his desire to defend his charges against the injurious effect of a judgement which had been pronounced by noted authority.
M. Renan had put forth, among the many theories which distinguish his celebrated work on the Semitic languages, one which seemed to M. Cuoq as mischievous as it was unfounded. M. Renan held that no races were capable of civilization except such as have now attained it; and that these comprised only the Aryan, the Semitic, and the Chinese. This opinion was enforced by a reference to the languages spoken by the members of those races. “To imagine a barbarous race speaking a Semitic or an Indo-European languageis,” he declares, ” an impossible supposition ( une fiction contradictoire), which no person can entertain who is familiar with the laws of comparative philology, and with the general theory of the human intellect.” To one who remembers that every nation of the Indo-European race traces its descents froma barbarous ancestry, and especially that the Germans in the days of Tacitus were in precisely the same social stage as that of the Iroquois in the days of Champlain, this opinion of the brilliant French philologist and historian will seem erratic and unaccountable. M Cuoq sought to refute it. not merely by argument, but by the logic of facts. In two works, published successively in 1864 and 1866, he showed, by many and various examples, that the Iroquois and Algonkin languages possessed all the excellences which M. Renan admired in the Indo-European languages, and surpassed in almost every respect the Semitic and Chinese tongues. The resemblances of these Indian languages to the Greek struck him, as it had struck his illustrious predecessor, the martyred Brebeuf, two hundred years before. M.Cuoq is also the author of the language. This lexicon is important, also, for comparison with that of the Jesuit missionary, Bruyas, as showing how little the language has varied in the course of two centuries. The following particulars respecting theIroquois tongues are mainly derived the words of M.Cuoq, of Bruyas, and of Mr. Wright, supplemented by the researches of the author, pursued at intervals during several years, among the tribes in Western Canada and New York. Only a brief sketch of the subject can be given here. It is not too much to say that a complete grammar of any Iroquois language would be at least as extensive as the best Greek or Sanskrit grammar. For such a work neither the writer, nor perhaps any other person now living, except M.Cuoq himself, would be competent.
The phonology of the language is at once simple and perplexing. According to M. Cuoq, twelve letters suffice to represent it:
Mr.Wright employs for the Seneca seventeen, with diacritical marks, which raise the number to twenty-one. The English missionaries among the Mohawk found seven letters sufficient,
a,d,e,g,h,i,j,k,n,o,r,s,t,u,w,y. There are no labial sounds, unless the f, which is rarely occurs, and appears to be merely an aspirated w, may be considered one. No definite distinction is maintained between the vowel sounds o and u, and one of these letters may be dispensed with. The distinction between hard and soft (or surd and sonant) mutes is not preserved. The sounds of d and t, and those of k and g, are interchangeable. So also are those of l and r, the former sound being heard more frequently in the Oneida dialect and the latter in the Canienga. From the Western dialects, — the Onondaga, Cayuga and Seneca, – this l and r sound has, in modern times, disappeared altogether. The canienga konorokwa, I esteem him (in Oneida usually sounded konolonkwa), has become konoenkwa in Onondaga,– and in Cayuga and Seneca is contracted to kononkwa. Aspirated and aspirated gutturals abound, and have been variously by h, hh,kh, and gh,and sometimes (in the works of the early French missionaries) by the Greek
Yet no permanent distinction appears to be maintained among the sounds thus represented, and M. Cuoq reduces them all to a simple h.The French nasal sound abound. M. Cuoq and the earlier English missionaries have expressed it, as in French, simply by the n when terminating a syllable. When it does not close a syllable, a diaeresis above the n, or else the Spanish tilde (n), (this n it to have the tilde. I don’t know how to add things like that yet.) indicates the sound. Mr. Wright denotes it by a line under the vowel. The later English missionaries express it y a diphthong: ken becomes ken; nonwa becomes noewa; onghwentsya is written oughweatsya.
A strict analysis would probably reduce the sounds of the Canienga languages to seven consonants, h,k,n,r,s,t, and w, and four vowel, a,e,i, and o, of which three, a,e, and o, may receive a nasal sound. This nasalizing makes them, in fact, distinct elements; and the primary sounds of the language may therefore be reckoned at fourteen. The absence of labials and the frequent aspirated gutturals give to the utterance of the best speakers a deep and sonorous character which reminds the hearer of the stately Castilian speech.
The “Book of Rite,” or, rather, the Canienga portion of it, is written in the orthography first employed by the English missionaries. The d is frequently used, and must be regarded merely as a variant t sound. The g is sometimes, though rarely, employed as a variant of the k. The digraph gh is common and represents the guttural aspirate, which in German is indicated by ch and in Spanish by j. The FRench missionaries write it now simply h, and consider it merely a harsh pronunciation of the aspirate. The j is sounded as in English; it usually represents a complex sound, which might be analysed into ts and rai; jathondek is properly tsiatontek. The X, which occasionally appears, is to be pronounced ks, as in English, AN, EN, ON, when not followed by a vowel, and has a nasal sound, as in French. This sound is heard even when those syllables are followed by another AND,Thus Kanonsionni is pronounced as if written kanonsionni and yondennase as if written yondennase. The vowels have usually the same as in German and Italian; but in the nasal EN the vowel has an abscure sound, nearly like that of that short U in the BUT. Thus yondennase sounds almost as if written yondunnase, and kanienke is pronounced nearly like kaniunke.
The nouns in Iroquois are varied, but with accidece differing from the Aryan andSemitic variations, some of the distinctions being more subtle, and, so to spesk, metaphysical. THe dual is expressed by prefixing the particle TE, and suffixing KE to the noun; thus, from kanonsa, house, we have tekanonsake, teo houses. Thesesyllables, or at least the first, are supposed to be derived from tekeni, two. THe plural, when it follows an ajective expressive of numbers, is indicated by the syllable NI prefixed to the noun, and KE suffixed; as, ESO NIKANONSAKE, many houses. In other cases the plural is sometimes expressed by one of the words OKON ( or hokon) okonha, son and sonha, folliwing the noun. In general, however, the plural significance of npun is left to be inferred from the context, the verb always and the adjective frequently indication it.
All beings are divided into two classes, which do not correspond either with the Aryan gender or with the distinctions of animate and inanimate which prevail in the Algonkin tongues. These classes have been styled noble and common. To the noble belong male human beings and deities. The other class comprises women and all other objects. It seems probable, however, that the distinction in the first instance was merely that sex,- that it was, in fact, true gender. Deities, bring regarded as male, were included in the masculine gender. There being no neuter form, the feminine gender was extended, and made to comprise all other beings. these classes, however, are not indicated be any change in the noun, but merely by the forms of pronoun and the verb.
The local relations of nouns are expressed by affixed particles, such as ke, ne, kon, akon, akta. Thus, from ononta mountain, we have
onontake, at (or to) the mountain; from akehrat, dish, akehratne, in (or on) the dish; from kanonsa, house, kanonsakon, or kanonsokon, under the house, kanonsakon, near the house. These locative particles, it will be seen, usually, though not always, draw the accent towards them.
The most peculiar and perplexing variation is tha made by what is termed the “crement,” affixe to many (though not all) nouns. This crement in the Caniega takes various forms, ta, sera, tsera, kwa.
Onkwe, men becomes onkweta; otkon, spirit, otkonsera; akawe, oar, akawetsera; ahta, shoe, ahh takwa. The crement is employed when the noun is used with numeral adjectives, when it has an adjective or other affixes, and generally when it enters into composition with other words. Thus onkwe, man, combined with the adjective termination iyo (from the obsolete wiyo, good) become onkwetiyo, good man. Wenni, day, becomes in the plural niaiteniwenniserake, many days, etc. The change, however, is not grammatical merely, but conveys a peculiar shade of meaning difficult to define. The noun, according to M. Cuoq, passes from a general and determinate to a special and restricted sense. Onkwe means man in general; asen nionkwetake, three men (in particular.) One inerpreter rendered akawwetsera, ” the or itself.” The affix sera or sera seems to be employed to form what we should term abstract nouns, though to the Iroquois mind they apparently present themselves as possessing a restricted or special sense. Thus from iotarihen,it is warm, we have otarihensera, heat: from wakeriat, to be brave, ateriatitsera, courage. So kakweniatsera, authority; kanaiesera, courage. So kakweniatsera, authority; kanaiesera, pride; kanakwensera, ander. Words of this class abound Iroquois; so little ground is there for the common opinion that the language is destitute of abstract nouns.
The adjective, when employed in an isolated form, follows the substantive; as kanonsa kowa, large house; onkwe honwe (or one) a real man. But, in general, the substantive and the adjective coalesce in one word. Ase signifies new, and added to kanonsa gives us kanonsase, new house. Karonta, tree, and kowa, or kowanen great, make, together karontowanen, great tree. Greqoently the affixed adjective is never employed as an isolated word. The termination
iyo (or iio) expresses good beautiful, and aksen, bad or ugly; thus kanonsiyo, fine house, kanonsaksen, ugly house.These compound forms frequently make their plurals by adding s, as kanonsiyos, kanonsakens.
The pronuouns are more numerous than in any European language, and show clearer distinctions in meaning.

ANCIENT RITES of the Condoling Council



Onenth weghniserade wakatyerenkowa desawennawenrate ne kenteyurhoton. Desahahishonne donwenghratstanyonne ne kentekaghronghwayon. Tesatkaghtoghserontye ronatennossendonghkwe yonkwanikonghtaghkwenne, konyennetaghkwen. Ne katykenh nayoyaneratye ne sanikonra? Daghsatkaghtoghseronne ratiyanarenyon onkwaghsotsherashonkenhha; neok detkanoron ne shekonh ayuyenkwaroghthake jiratighrotonghkwakwe. Ne katykenh nayuyaneratye ne sanikonra desakaghserentonyonne?
Niyawehkowa katy nonwa onenh skennenji thisayatirhehon. Onenh nonwa oghseronnih denighroghkwayen. Hasekenh thiwakwekonh deyunennyatenyon nene konnerhonyon, “Ie henskerighwaghtonte.” Kenyutnyonkwaratonnyon, neony kenyoydakarahon, neony kenkontifaghsoton. Nedens aesayatyenenghdon, konyennedaghkwen, neony kenkaghnekonyon nedens aesayatyeneghdon, knoyennethaghkwen, neony kenwaseraketotanese kentewaghsatayenha kanonghsakdatye. Niyateweghniserakeh yonkwakaronny; onidatkon yaghdekeonghsonde oghsonterraghkowa nedens aesayatyenenghdon, konyennethaghkwen.
Niyawenhkowa kady nonwa onenh skennenjy thadesarhadiyakonh. Hasekenh kanoron jinayawenhon nene aesahhahiyenenhon, nene ayakotyerenhon ayakawen, “Issy tyeyadakeron, akwah deyakonakorondon!” Ayakaweron oghnonnekenh niyuterenhhatye, konyennedaghkwen.
Rotirighwison onkwaghsotshera, ne ronenh, “Kenhenyondatsjistayenhaghse. Kendeyughnyonkwarakda eghtenyontatitenrany orighokonha.” Kensane yeshotiriwayen orighwakwekonh yatenkarighwentaseron, nene akwah denyontatyadoghseronko. Neony ne ronenh, “Ethononweh yenontatenonshine, kanakdakwenniyukeh yenyontatideron.”
Onenh kady iese sewweyenghskwe sathaghyonnighson:
Etho ne niwa ne akotthaghyonnishon.

  1. Onenh nene shehaawah deyakodarakeh ranyaghdenghshon:
    Etho ne niwa ne rayaghdenshon.
  2. Onenh nene jadadeken roskerewake:
  3. Onenh nene onghwa kehaghshonha:
    Etho ne niwa roghskerewake.
    Eghnikatakeghne orighwakayongh.
  4. Ne kaghyaton jinikawennakeh ne dewadadenonweronh, “Konyennedaghkwen, onenh weghniserade yonkwatkennison. Rawenniyo rawweghniseronnyh. Ne onwa konwende yonkwatkennison nene jinkiyuneghrakwah jinisayadawen. Onenh onghwenjakonh niyonsakahhawe jinonweh nadkakaghneronnyonghhwe. Akwah kady okaghserakonh thadetyatroghkwanekenh.
  5. “Onenh kady yakwenronh, wakwennyonkoghde okaghsery, akwah kady ok skennen thadenseghsatkagh-thonnyonhheke.
    11.”Nok ony kanekhere deyugsihharaonh ne sahondakon. Onenh kady watyakwaghsiharako waahkwadeweyendonh tsisaronkatah, kady nayawenh ne skennen thensathondeke enhtyewenninekenneh.
  6. “Nok ony kanekhere deyughsihharaonh desanyatokenh. Onenh kady hone yakwenronh watyakwaghsihharanko, akwah kady ok skennen deghsewnninekenne dendewadatenonghweradon.
  7. Onenh are oya, konennethaghkwen. Nene kadon yuneghrakwah jinesadawen. Niyadeweghniserakeh saniyeskahhaghs; ken-ony saderesera. Akwagh kady ok onekwenghdarihengh thisennekwakenry.
  8. Onenh kady yakwenronh wak\wanekwenghdarokewanyon jisanakdade, ogh kady nenyawenne seweghniserathagh ne akwah skennen then kanakdiyuhake ji enghsitskodake denhsatkaghdonnyonheke.
  9. Onenh nene Karenna,
    Yondonghs “Aihaigh.”

Kayanerenh deskenonghweronne;
Kheyadawenh deskenonghweronne;
Oyenkondonh deskenonghweronne;
Wakonnyh deskenonghweronne.
Ronkeghsotah rotirighwane,-
Ronkeghsota jiyathondek.

!6. Enskat ok enjerennokden nakwah oghnaken nyare enyonghdentyonko kanonghsakonghshon, enyairon:

  1. ” A-i Raxhottahyh! Ne ji onenh wakarighwakayonne ne sewarighwisahnonghkwe ne kayarenghkowah. Ayawenhenstokenghske daondayakotthondeke.
  2. “Na-i Raxhottahyh! Ne kenne iesewenh enyakodenghthe nene noghnaken enyakaonkodaghkwe.
  3. “Na-i Raxhottahyh! Onenh nonwa kathonghnonweh dhatonghdaghwanyon jienghnonhon nitthati-righwayerathaghke.”
  4. “Na-i Raxhottahyh! Nene ji onenh wakarighwakayonne ne sewarighwisahnonghkwe, ne Kayarenghkowa. Yejisewatkonserghkwayon onghwenjakonshon yejiewayadakeron, sewarighsahnhonkwe ne Kayanerenhkowah. Ne sanekenh aerengh niyenghhenwe enyurighwadatye Kayanerenghkowah.”

  1. Eghnikonh enyerighwawetharho kenthoh, are enjondernnoden enskat enjerenokden, onenh ethone enyakohetsde onenh are enjondentyyonko kanonghsakonghshon, enyairon wahhy:
  2. “A-i Raxhotthahyh! Onenh jattondek kady nonwa jinihhotiyerenh, – orghwakwekoinh natehaotiyadoreghtonh, nene roneronh ne enyononghsaghniratston. A-i Raxhotthahyh! nene ronenh: ‘Onen nonwa wetewayennendane; wetewennakeraghdanyon; watidewennakarondonnyon.’
  3. Onenh are oya eghdeshotiyadoreghdonh, nene ronenh: Kenkisenh nenyawenne. Aghsonh thiyenjidewatyenghsaeke, onok enjonkwanekheren.’ Nene ronenh: “Kenkine nenyawanne. Agsonh denyakokwanentonghsaeke, onok denjontadenakarondako. Nene doka ok yadayakonakarondatye onghwenjakonh niyaonsakahawe, A-i Raxhottahyh,’ nene ronenh, ‘da-edewenhheye onghteh, neok yadayakonakarondatye onghwenjakonh niyaonsakahawe.’
  4. “Onenh are oya eghdeshodiyadoregghtonh, nai Raxhottahyh! Nene ronenh ne enyononghsaghniratston. Nene ronengh: ‘Doka onwa Keneyondatyadawenghdate, ne kenkarenyakeghrondonhah ne nayakoghstonde ne nayeghnyasakenradake, ne kenh ne iesewenh, kenkine nenyawenne. Kendenyethirentyinnite kanhonghdakde dewaghsadayenhah.
  5. “Onenh are oya eghdejisewayudoreghdonh, nene isewenh: ‘Yahhonghdehdeyoyanere nene kenwedewayen, onwa enyeken nonkwaderesera; kadykenh niyakoghswathah, akwekonh nityakawenonhtonh ne kenyoteranen-tenyonhah. Enyonterenjiok kendonsayedane akwah enyakonewarontye, onok enyerighwanendon oghnikawenhonh ne kendeyeretyonny; katykenh nenyakorane nen-yerighwanendon akare onenh enyakodokenghse. Onok na entkaghwadasehhon nakonikonra, onenh are ne eh enjonkwakaronny.’
  6. “Onenh are oya eghdeshotiyadoreghdonh, nene ronenh: ‘Kenkine nenyawenne. Endewghneghdotako skarenhhesekowah, enwadonghwenjadethare eghyendewasenghte tyoghnawtenghjihonh kathonghdeh thinenkahhawe; onenh denghnon dentidewagneghdoten, onenh denghnon yaghnonwendonh thiyaensayeken nonkwateresera.’
  7. “Onenh are oya eghdeshotiyadoreghonh, nene roneronh wedewaweyennendane; wedewennakerghdanyon. Doka nonkenh onghwajok onok enjonkwanekheren. Ken kady ne nenyawenne. Kenhendewaghatatsherodarho ken kanakaryonniha deyunhonghdoyenghdongh yendewanaghsenghde, kennikonghkahdeh. Enwadon ok jiyudakenrokde thadenyedane dogkara nentyewwnninekenne enjondatenikonghketsko ne enyenikonghkwenghdarake. Onokna enjeyewendane yenjonthahida ne kayanereghkowa.’
  8. “Onenh kady ise jadakweniyu ken Kanonghsyonny, Dekanawidah, ne degniwenniyu ne rohhawah Odadsheghte; onenh nene yeshodonnyh Wathadodarho; onenh nene yeshohowah akahenyonh; onare nene yeshodonnyh Kanyadariyu; onenh nen yeshonarase Shdekaronyes; onenh nene onghwa kehhaghsaonhah yejodenaghstahhere kanghsdajikowah.”

  1. Onenh jattondek sewarihwisaanonghkwe Kayarenhkowah. Onenh wakarighwakayonne. Onenh ne okne joskawayendon. Yetsisewanenyadanyon ne sewariwisaanonghkweh. Yejisewahhawihtonh, yetsisewennits-karahgwanyon; agwah neok ne skaendayendon. Etho yetsisewanonwadaryon. Sewarihwisaanonghkwe yetsisewahhawitonh. Yetsisewatgonserghkwanyon sewarihwisaanonghkwe, Kayanerehkowah.
  2. Onenh kady jattondek jadakweniyosaon sewarihwisaanonghkwe:



Etho natejonhne!

  1. Jatthontenyonk!
    Etho natejonhne!
  2. Jatthontenyonk!
    Jatagweniyosaon, DEHENNAKARINE!
    Etho natejonhne,
  3. Ise seniyatagweniyohkwe,
    Ne deseniyenah;
    Onenh katy jatthontenyonk
    Etho natejonhne!
  4. Jatthontenyonk!
    Jataweniyosaon, Atyatonnenhtha!
    Etho natejonhne!
  5. Jattontenyomk!


Etho natejonhne!Sewaterihwakhaonghkwe,

  1. Eghyesaotonnihsen:
    Onenh jatthontenyonk!

Etho natejonhne!

  1. Yeshohawak:
    Etho kekeghrondakwe
    Ne kanikonghrashon,
    Etho natejonhne!
  2. Etho yeshotonnyh,

Etho nadehhadihne!

  1. Wahhondennonterontye,

Etho nadejonhne!

  1. Etho niyawenonh,
    Etho wahhoronghyaronnyon:

etho natejonhne!

  1. YEshohhawak,

Etho natejonhne!

    Etho natejonhnan,
    Etho natejonhne!
    Etho natejonhneh!
  3. yeshotonnyh,
    Etho natejonhneh!
  4. Satyenawat!
    ShakenjowaneEtho natejonhneh!
  5. Kanokarih!
    Etho natejonhoneh!
  6. Onghwa keghaghshonah
    Etho ronaraseshen,

Etho natejonhneh!

  1. Onenh watyonkwentendane

Author: Delana Zakrzewski

I am saved by the most High God for others sins against me any sins against the Lord God Almighty, Whose Son Jesus, washed us all of our sin by His presuses blood and beat death, by walking out of the Tomb

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